1. Calculate concentration of species at equilibrium.

2. Assess acidity and basicity of solutions.

3. Determine the strength of acids and bases.

3. Develope pC-pH diagrams and use them.

4. Determine solubility of solids.

5. Determine carbonate alkalinity of solutions.

6. Determine the hydrolysis products.

7. Develope Eh-pH diagrams and use them in mineral processing applications.