Understand the following topics:

**Magnetic Circuits and Magnetic Materials:** Magnetic Circuits; Flux Linkage, Inductance and Energy; Magnetic Materials and Losses, AC Excitation

**Transformers: **Ideal Transformer; Equivalent Circuit; Regulation and Efficiency; Short Circuit and Open Circuit Tests; Multiwinding Transformers, Autotransformer.

**Operational Features of AC Machines: **MMF of Distributed Windings; Pulsating and Rotating Magnetic Fields; EMF Equation.

**Induction Machines: **Introduction to 3-Phase Induction Machine Currents and Fluxes; Induction Motor Equivalent Circuit; Determining Machine Parameters, Analysis of Equivalent Circuit; Torque, Power, No-Load and Blocked-Rotor Tests. Motor and Generator Operations, Regenerative Breaking.

**Synchronous Machines: **Cylindirical Rotor Synchronous Machines, Equivalent Circuit; Open and Short Circuit Characteristics; Steady State Power-Angle and Steady-State Operating Characteristics.

**DC Machines: **Introduction; Commutation Action; Electric Circuit Aspects; Motor Operation, Regenerative Braking, Speed Control.