Students will be able to solve problems by using dimensional analysis for unit conversion method. Students will start to learn to think like chemists so that they can apply the process of problem solving to all aspects of their lives. Students will use the tools to become critical thinkers: to ask questions, to apply rules and models, and to evaluate the outcome. The student will justify the observation that the ratio of the masses of the constituent elements in any pure sample of that compound is always identical on the basis of the atomic molecular theory. The student will be able to express the law of conservation of mass quantitatively and qualitatively using symbolic representations and particular drawings. The student will be able to relate quantities (measured mass of substances, volumes of solutions, or volumes and pressures of gases) to identify stoichiometric relationships for a reaction, including situations involving limiting reactants and situations in which the reaction has not gone to completion. The student will be able to connect the number of particles, moles, mass, and volume of substances to one another, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The student will be able to evaluate the classification of a process as a physical change, chemical change, or ambiguous change based on both macroscopic observations and the distinction between rearrangement of covalent interactions and noncovalent interactions. The student will be qualitatively analyze data regarding real gases to identify deviations from ideal behavior and relate these to molecular interactions. The student will be able to draw qualitative and quantitative connections between the reaction enthalpy and the energies involved in the breaking and formation of chemical bonds. The student will be able to predict and/or justify trends in atomic properties based on location on the periodic table and/or the shell model. The student will be able to describe the electron structure of the atom, using PES (photoelectron spectroscopy) data, ionization energy data, and/or Coulomb’s Law to construct explanations of how the energies of electrons within shells in atoms vary. The student is able to use Lewis diagrams and VSEPR to predict the geometry of molecules, identify hybridization, and make predictions about polarity. The student is able to describe the electron structure of the atom, using Molecular Orbital Theory, ionization energy data, how the energies of electrons within shells in atoms vary.