The course aims at providing students with a profound knowledge about different planning paradigms and approaches starting from the late 19th century until today. They learn past and present core planning approaches and paradigms, which have shaped thinking within the field of city and regional planning. The emphases will be on both planning process and substantive outcomes. Students are expected to identify how changing paradigms and thoughts have guided planning practice and research. In the end, students are supposed to develop skills to integrate theory and practice.